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10-17-2015, 11:02 AM
Samir Abbas Alnasiri *: monetary policies in Iraq and proposals for the next phase applications


Iraqi Central Bank is responsible for monetary policy in Iraq and its applications and on the developmental role that must be played by Kmussh sovereign sober in the design and application of monetary policy during the period of 2004 the date of the law until the present time through all stages of completion and the failure experienced by who tried through what has been accomplished that creates the kind of economic stability in spite of the lack of security and political stability and the difficulties and the objective and subjective conditions that accompany his work where there was a tangle of plans and policies. But then it became a monetary policy features and trends, strategies and clear the basis of which a reduction of hyperinflation, which had a negative impact clear to all economic life milestones since the blockade imposed on Iraq in 1991 and as a result of what they suffered Iraq wars for many disorders has become inflation mounts high paces record until he reached the highest rates

It deteriorated all the productive sectors and has become a very big gap between the wages and salaries and high prices in the light of the many changes experienced by the Iraqi economy post-2003 (http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/en-ca/books/product/9781472523310-item.html), and the issuance of the Iraqi Central Bank Law No. 56 of 2004, under which the Board of the Central Bank of Iraq administration took issue regulations, instructions, and select the mechanisms and tools and applications monetary policy in Iraq in order to achieve the central objectives of basic ones hyperinflation lowering and raising the purchasing value of the Iraqi dinar and maintain a balanced rates compared with foreign currencies, particularly the US dollar in addition to the formation of reserves of foreign currency and management as the body responsible for issuing currency and protect its value at home and abroad.

10-17-2015, 11:02 AM
Add to that the Central Bank of Iraq aims and according to the Bakannouna to the pursuit of stability in the exchange rate of the Iraqi dinar and promote the preservation of a stable financial system competitive and based on the market and the promotion of economic stability and sustainable growth and prosperity in Iraq ...

The functions of the Central Bank of Iraq in achieving the above objectives are as follows:

Formulation and implementation of monetary policy, including exchange rate policy

Retention and management of all foreign reserves

Management of government reserves of gold

Issuance and management of the Iraqi currency

Monitoring and enhancing the safety and efficiency of payment systems

Awalajazac issuing licenses for banks and the regulation and control of banks as defined in the Banking Act No. 94 of 2004.

The objectives of monetary policy

The objectives of monetary policy to achieve economic growth and stability and to reduce unemployment and stabilize the prices of goods and services and the stability of exchange rates and improve the balance of payments and to achieve these goals through a direct and indirect monetary policy instruments

They can identify the most important of these goals


Reduction of inflation

The case rooted in inflationary phenomenon which Eshrha inflation mainly caused by aggregate demand pressures led inevitably to an imbalance exchange market in terms of the desire of the public to keep cash balances over the supply of those stocks, reflecting the increase in money circulation speed and an increase in inflationary expectations at the same time as has become the latest source of continued inflationary phenomenon President so it was the goal of reducing hyperinflation of the primary purposes of monetary politicians

Maintain a cash balance (http://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?toolid=10029&campid=CAMPAIGNID&customid=CUSTOMID&catId=267&type=2&ext=281822433954&item=281822433954) of the market

That the work to strengthen the Iraqi dinar exchange rate as well as the face of the phenomenon of cash substitution and the requirements of the availability of a tight monetary policy of a two-way exchange rate and interest rate, which will affect the money market balance.

10-17-2015, 11:03 AM
Retention and management of foreign reserves (foreign exchange and gold)

Of the basic tasks of the Central Bank of Iraq is to build foreign cash reserve in order to promote and cover the Iraqi dinar exchange rate stability and the creation of valuable money market, one of the successful application of monetary policy indicators.

Currency reform management system

The management of the currency system to adopt any shift from a small amount of currency chasing a large amount of the price of services and reflects the stability, growth and prosperity stage and on this basis, the proposed project to delete the zeros of the Iraqi dinar launches of good monetary system management considerations and the shift of monetary mass flaccid to block easy cash trading and creativity

Monetary policy tools

Is the monetary policy of the most prominent aimed at achieving economic stability and exchange-rate peg rates in excess of the national economy stronger and more effective to face the economic challenges as the achievement of foreign exchange reserves currently stands at up to $ 61 billion and install the Iraqi dinar exchange rate against the dollar is considered to be necessary and appropriate economic policies and the auctions of foreign currency by the Central Bank of Iraq held a positive role in maintaining the appropriate level of the exchange rate and install a negative role in the lack of control over foreign currency, which led to the escape of a portion of what is sold in individuals currency abroad and formally and without control, hurting the Iraqi economy has taken CBI several steps to expand the list of tools available to monetary policy and to cover the required reserves to include government deposits and the granting of facilities on deposits that mature in a short period in order to allow banks to manage the development of liquidity way more effective and can identify the most important what has been achieved monetary policy tools in the past (2004 - 2015 ) As follows :

10-17-2015, 11:04 AM
First: the relative stability of exchange rates

The current structural stability of the rates of exchange rate despite the ups and downs to the current rates several times during 2014 and 2015, has been granted an opportunity for the Iraqi economy to rebuild and relative growth despite the fact that prices have not stabilized completely and due in part to the lack of stability and the nature of the security conditions and politics and falling global oil prices and the weakness of economic planning through which Iraq was able policy adopted by the Central Bank of Iraq started to maintain a relatively balanced rate of the Iraqi dinar rate.

Second, monetary policy hardline

The tight monetary policy adopted by the Central Bank of Iraq as part of a strategy to achieve the goal of stability has shown that the financial system Almdolr taking tends to decline because of the launch of the freedom of foreign exchange in accordance with the Principles and guidelines have been modified several times, but no full Aalsatrh on the cash trading market because of speculation in the parallel market and the weakness of mechanisms and policies adopted and loss of coordination between the competent episodes in Iraq's economic and appliances.

Third: the stability of the financial system

Monetary policy has embarked on the establishment of an effective framework for action works towards strengthening confidence in the local currency to create a strong and deep conditions the stability of the financial system in any transfer of the impact of operational objectives for monetary policy to achieve an immediate objective of the policy itself

Fourth: the reduction of inflationary phenomenon

Reflects the gradual decline in inflationary phenomenon positive effects of the policy of the Central Bank of Iraq in the promotion of exchange of the Iraqi tastiest dinar price peppered strong effects on the stability of goods tradable prices, which Eshrha at the same time the annual inflation basis (expressed in index of consumer prices) which led this policy to reduce

The annual inflation rate to 2.6% in August 2015 and requires from the Iraqi Central Bank to adopt a policy aimed at reducing inflation and to address the trends and causes and in a manner provides critical stability of the wider and order to expedite the economic growth rates and ensure perpetuating through two signals main points, namely strengthening the real interest rate and the price of the Iraqi dinar exchange on to accelerate the balance and stability of the financial market and macroeconomic stability in the country.

10-17-2015, 11:05 AM
Fifth: to control the levels of liquidity and management

According to the economic stability of the rules of monetary policy works analyzing the money supply and narrow in its broadest sense and liquidity position and determine the money supply and its components in the broad sense (cash) but the reality of the application confirms that control the levels of liquidity has not been achieved fully and effectively and had a negative impact on the cash trading activity and thus not control of liquidity in the lower and upper boundaries and within the standards set by the Central Bank of Iraq.

Sixth: stimulate the banks to move towards market

Implementation of monetary policy adopted to serve the expansion of the credit scale and achieve the objectives of economic development has used the bank this tool with a view to controlling liquidity through directed banks to move towards the market and contribute to the economic stability of the monetary credit granted to finance the economic sectors of agriculture, industry, services, trade and housing, but conditions in Iraq economic, security, political, and not to give the key role of the private banking sector led to the weakness of the private sector-led market.

Monetary policy proposals for the next phase applications

Since the Central Bank of Iraq is currently preparing a plan for the coming years in the development of policies, programs and working mechanisms and in particular with regard to the applications of monetary policy and means of supervision and control of the Iraqi banking sector believe that the study made the following observations and suggestions:

That the Central Bank of Iraq to re-plan and future policies of cash until 2020 with confirmation of its main goal of dealing with inflation and achieve the planned growth in the contribution of the banking sector in the GDP and the central economic task as well as it is necessary to search for new policies to achieve this goal and allows the government and private banks to participate in growth and investment in accordance with the mechanisms and policies can be implemented without the imposition of strict policies and give sufficient elasticity.

Address the apparent gap between the financial policies of the state and monetary policies adopted by the Central Bank of Iraq and the requirements of the fight against inflationary pressures and reduce the current expenditure and coordination of plans and programs to achieve the rescue of the Iraqi economy from financial collapse.

Activation of the Iraqi Central Bank's policy control over monetary policy in the private banking system to support and reconsider the policies of lending and the mechanics of credit risk management in the granting of credit to small and medium investment and loans in production and investment sectors that check clear cash flow and revive the economic cycle, which would contribute to the economic development and diversification of financial resources the generalbudget (http://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?toolid=10029&campid=CAMPAIGNID&customid=CUSTOMID&catId=267&type=2&ext=391271889915&item=391271889915).

The Central Bank of Iraq to reconsider study the possibility of lowering the cap timeout law of the volume of deposits in banks and frozen with the Central Bank of Iraq without investment as these frozen funds can invest and benefit from the support of private banks and enable them to expand their investment activities and the search for new banking products also requires the development of mechanisms for lending to banks, which suffer from a severe liquidity crisis due to the general economic situation that Iraq is going through.

Development and support and stimulate the Iraq Stock Exchange and to find the means and tools that push and effective market and companies index prices in line, assets and standard output and profits by at least inevitably about the true value of stocks and prevent speculation that harm Iraq's asset-which does not fit the true and actual value.

The Central Bank of Iraq to reconsider the instructions for auction foreign currency and regulate the sale of dollar process and define the role of banks in the mediation between the customer and the central bank in addition to determine the responsibility of the Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Planning in the irregularities committed by some customers and not to download only the responsibility of the banks.

The establishment of (fund) or (a private portfolio) to certificates of deposit issued by banks wishing to address the deterioration of stock prices in the Iraq Stock Exchange and the addition of new banking management of the current investment investment climate in the market to stimulate as well as increasing the volume of bank deposits, which leads to increased investment activities in all sectors of the economy and thus achieve positive impact for investors.

The boards of directors of banks in approving operational risk strategy and implementation of the executive management of the bank to ensure that the operational risks associated with all types of banking products selected. And provide a base of information flowing in the bank, which play an important and key role in establishing and maintaining effective framework for operational risk management and follow-up over the possession of the banks an effective system for identifying, measuring and monitoring operational risk as part of risk management.

And the Central Bank is preparing a regular and independent assessment of the strategies, policies and procedures for bank-related operational risks and the adoption of this regulation as a basic criteria for assessing banks and classification

Reconsider a provision for doubtful debts in accordance with the list of guidance and re-elasticities and extended extra time for banks to be able to liquidate these debts, most of which go back to earlier periods and most debtors have migrated outside their cities Iraq for security reasons beyond their control and that these ratios lead to a cut in the profits realized actually result These percentages deducted from net profit and thus affect the new investment banking activities.

Restructuring of the banking sector, especially the government banking sector and to study the privatization of some of its divisions, branches and work on activating the operating banks expand and diversify their banking services especially to increase credit and investment share in a balanced manner with revenues of college to become these banks an effective pillar of economic growth that the move away from the monopoly of some banking operations and the withholding of government activities and public institutions for private banks.